Ultimately all ethical philosophies run into the problem of quantitative versus qualitative results and the problem of majority rights and/or effects versus minority rights and/or effects.
Ethical considerations should optimize quality humans so they should also try to reproduce as many quality humans as possible so the next generation has quantitatively more quality humans.
Eugenics theory tried to advocate this but was perverted by the Nazi regime so the entire thinking in this area has been censored because there is too much subjectivism in eugenics concepts which are put into realistic practice politically.
DNA analysis and synthesis can make eugenics considerations more objective in the long duration so I feel that individual parents armed with this information can make personal choices on what kinds of offspring they want if any. Designer babies are a possibility in the long duration although I fear that looks or physical appearance will predominate in choices and not brain power and overall health.
Some ethical theories try to optimize beneficial results for the majority of humans with terms such as happiness, welfare, security, etc. The problem with these theories is that the minority gets oppressed or become slaves to the majority of humans and this is an unjust violation of individual or minority rights.
What we really need is a philosophy of moral principles which benefit both the individual and the majority in the short and long duration otherwise an unjust philosophy of the means justifies the ends results.
In nonemergency situations-don’t destroy biodiversity, don’t lie, don’t be inefficient, don’t steal, don’t commit adultery if married, and don’t murder. This secular morality should be taught to all impressionable young minds in elementary school so that they don’t always have to stop and think- Is what I am doing right or wrong? Impulsively offspring will react with this moral foundation and be right most of the time and they should be considered to be moral adults by the age of about 13.
A very important moral principle is “don’t lie” which benefits the individual because he or she can retain integrity and be respected by others in society because he or she is trustworthy. The majority also benefits with this principle because it provides some security in knowing that there are others in society worth trusting. Hopefully the leadership will become less cynical and become more trustworthy too.
“Don’t commit adultery if married” is also very important for the survival of healthy family units which stay together for a much longer duration if there is no adultery going on. Individual family units benefit as does society with many close knit families in it for hopefully the long duration.
Don’t destroy biodiversity, don’t be inefficient, don’t steal, and don’t murder are also very important principles to try to follow for the benefit of the individual and society.
Realistically important government functions have to be financed so taxation which is really a form of stealing can be justified. In fact there are about 5 situations in society where stealing can be justified and you can look this up in my blog article or books.
The real philosophical question is not whether the government should be able to steal your money in the form of taxation but rather how much of it percentage wise should they be permitted to steal?
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