Tag Archives: reasoning


cognitive bias is often an impulsive mistake in reasoning, evaluating, remembering, decision-making, or other thinking process, often occurring as a result of holding onto one’s preferences, beliefs, emotions, and prejudices regardless of contrary information.

Cognitive biases are impulsive thinking biases which often make you reach the wrong conclusions and lead you into making inaccurate statements. Reality is altered by these cognitive biases and your thinking and decision making process becomes less than perfect often creating mistakes or problems where there shouldn’t be any. Often impulsive emotions are a major reason why the cognitive biases exist in the first place. Emotional impulsive reactions are habitual ways of thinking which dominate the decision making process for most humans and do not require much if any thinking before reacting. Most humans don’t reason or think but are impulsively judgmental to a large degree.

Authority and Respect Bias:

Worth mentioning is that humans tend to be persuaded by or have a greater belief or trust in authority figures and humans that they like, admire, or respect.

Confirmation Bias:

We love to agree with people who agree with us. That is why we only visit websites and read articles that express our political opinions, and why we mostly interact with humans who hold similar views and tastes. We tend to avoid or ignore individuals, groups, and news sources that make us feel uncomfortable or insecure about our views and preferences.

Ingroup or Herd Instinct Bias:

Somewhat similar to the confirmation bias is the ingroup bias, an indication of our innate tribalistic or herd instinct tendencies. This innate impulsive bias helps us to make tighter bonds with people in our own group but performs the exact opposite function for those on the outside. It makes us suspicious, fearful, and even disrespectful and contemptuous of others. The ingroup bias causes us to overestimate the abilities and value of our own immediate group at the expense of people we don’t really know.

Bandwagon Bias:

This is really a takeoff of the ingroup bias which is a tendency for humans to want to go along with the majority in terms of opinions and behavior rather than be the exception to the rule and develop your own opinions and behavior. Humans in general tend to be conformists rather than rebellious non conformists.

Previous Event Bias:

Humans have a tendency to place greater importance on previous events and assume that if something occurred in the past then the chances for repetition of that event in the future are more likely. Thus gamblers erroneously believe that they are on a winning streak despite the fact that the odds against winning are always the same.

Status Quo Bias:

This is our tendency to continue old habits and not try to change to new and perhaps better ones. We have a tendency to order the same types of meals in restaurants and experiment rarely with new choices. We smoke the same brand of cigarettes despite just as good and cheaper ones and stick with brands that we know in general and don’t go for generic equivalents which are just as good. The general summarized attitude is “If it isn’t broken, then don’t fix it.”

Impulse Bias:

We have a tendency to buy what we want in the short run but sometimes buy what we need in the long duration. We prefer to buy donuts and chocolate now but buy healthier foods for the next week’s consumption. Immediate gratification often wins out over delayed gratification and studies have found that those who can delay gratification do better in life and are more responsible.

Inaccurate Generalizations Bias:

This happens when you take just one example and make it into a general rule. Rarely is this attempt at generalization accurate and it is often faulty too. We may hear of one or two women involved in a car accident and make the erroneous generalization that women are worse drivers than men.

Stereotype Bias:

You make decisions biased by ethnic, gender, appearance, or professional stereotypes. You may be asked if both are qualified who would you hire as a car mechanic or nurse, a male or a female? The stereotype of male mechanics and female nurses is hard to overcome and is reflected in hiring practices which theoretically should not be discriminatory. The problem with stereotyping is that generalized group characteristics are unjustly forced on individuals who may greatly deviate from stereotyped group norms and deserve just evaluation.

Always or Never Thinking Bias:

You are too absolute in your thinking and think too many things are yes or no, all or nothing, black or white, always or never, and seldom sometimes, frequently, infrequently or grey. You may believe that the sun never shines during a rain which is generally true in northern areas. However, in Florida, in the summertime there are often 5 or 10 minute showers with the sun shining through the clouds.

Blaming Bias:

Before you uncover the reason for a mistake or a new problem you quickly blame others or yourself for it. There are many cases where circumstances are to blame and no one particular human.

Denial Bias:

Before you uncover the reason for a mistake or new problem you quickly deny that it was your fault or sometimes even deny that it was someone else’s fault. If you trust or like someone a lot then your first reaction may be that they are not to blame for a mistake or problem.

Rule Fanaticism Bias:

You strongly believe that rules are absolute and should be followed unquestioningly all the time. You harshly criticize yourself and others for not following them even though realistically there are exceptions to these rules which should seriously be considered. There are one or more circumstances under which  the rules can be broken but you refuse to accept this reality.

Negative or Positive bias:

You focus too much on either the negative or positive factors and fail to analyze both the negative and the positive events and possibilities. Viewing the local news with all the examples of crime may lead you to pessimistically conclude that crime is getting much worse and you may take extra steps to guard against burglars and other thieves. Negative examples have about 3 times the emotional impact on you than neutral or positive events but there are still many optimists who focus on the positive rather than the negative and feel that things are getting better or at least staying the same.

Pessimistic Fear Bias:

You fear that mostly bad things will happen and often fear the worst case scenario. Being pessimistic about the way things are going in the world is common but it can become a major handicap in your own life if you live in fear of very bad things happening to you and worry about this on a daily basis.

Personalization Bias:

You take things too personally and get easily offended and feel that what humans do and say is a direct reaction to your behavior.

Mind Reading Bias:

You assume that you know what others are thinking without verifying the thoughts with questioning. You may falsely assume that someone is sad rather than tired and greedy about money rather than merely selfinterested and desiring affirmation from others.

Emotional Bias:

You assume that your emotions have validity and that others probably feel the same way that you do. Nowhere is emotional bias more prevalent than in discussions or arguments about religion, politics, and sports.

Fairness Bias:

You think that your idea of fairness is workable and preferable because fundamentally it is your opinion.

Miraculous Thinking Bias:

You think that getting lucky, getting smarter, getting wealthier, finding a mentor, etc. will solve all your problems instantly.

There are more cognitive biases than just 20. If you want more information on cognitive biases done in a slightly different manner then view this link which presents 25 and 12 cognitive biases on YouTube.



Opinion: n. communicating a relatively weak transient belief which is subject to change if confronted by (logical reasoning and/or experiences) and/or respected authority figures which nullify samer belief

Persuasion: n. getting agreement that a goal(s) is worth achieving

Before you try to change someone’s opinion it is best to stop and ask yourself three basic questions-

Is the human important enough in my life?

Is the opinion that I want to change going to benefit me and/or the another human in some way?

Is the opinion important enough in my life to spend my time, energy, effort, and maybe even money trying to change the opinion?

If the answer to the three questions is yes then go ahead and try to change the opinion.

If the answer is no then you are wasting your time, energy, effort, and maybe even money trying to change an opinion which should be left alone in the first place.

Persuasion is called an art because humans are different and what may persuade one human may not persuade another even if you use all the recommended persuasive tactics or tricks suggested by others.

There are general principles of persuasion which optimize the probability of success in changing another’s opinion but it is not a sure thing so my suggestions are merely ballpark approximations to what should be done to change someones’s opinion.

In general you will be more persuasive if you are


respected as an authority figure,

use factual or real examples to support your opinion, and

customize your opinions to the real life experiences and feelings of the human that you are trying to persuade.

Changing someone’s opinion is easier than changing someone’s basic beliefs but it is always easier to do if there is some personal benefit which can come from a change in opinion. If your persuasion will lead to someone saving time, energy, and money and even feeling happy about the change then it could be a worthwhile persuasion.

Try to change an opinion if you come from a position of authority or respect and are either known to have expertise on the subject or have a relatively close trusting relationship with the person whom you are trying to persuade.

Historical precedents are important because if something has worked before or is working well now then chances are frequently pretty good that it will work in the future too. Also appeal to experts or testimonials if you want to back up your persuasive powers with influential humans who have the same opinion.

Personality types will also affect your persuasive ability and it might be wise to determine whether a human is very dogmatically inclined on a subject or is malleable and open to differing views on the subject. If you feel there is a great emotional investment or emotional attachment then opposing that opinion may only lead to an argument or a strong denial.

Not so obvious is that it is very important WHOM you are trying to persuade. Is it your boss, employee, customer, friend, date, spouse, offspring, stranger, team, or audience whom you are trying to persuade?

Business persuasion is very different than trying to impress or persuade your date what a good potential mate you will be and persuading an audience has its own unique skill set. Google and find out what are the unique ways of persuading each category of humans. You will only find general principles covered in this blog.

Unless it is a close friend or spouse generally stay away from attempts to change a religious, political, or sports opinion which can quickly escalate into an undesirable argument and standoff.

WHAT you are trying to persuade a human of is also very important. There are factual persuasions and very subjective personal persuasions about politics, religion, sports odds, and aesthetics which are very frequently excursions into futility because the highly emotional beliefs or opinions are so strong and seldom subject to change or persuasion. Sometimes facts or statistics are coupled with strong emotional biases or feelings about what the facts really mean and a strictly logical approach to try and persuade may not be sufficient to reach a persuasive agreement.

If changing an opinion may result in an immediate or future pay increase then persuasion can lead to good personal benefits and should be pursued.

For an overloaded working mom it can be beneficial to try and persuade the husband to get more involved in doing household chores and share the burden or responsibility. The husband may have an opinion that cleaning the house and cooking is women’s work so she will probably have to come up with a lot of convincing examples of working couples sharing the household workload.

Janitor men clean and men chefs cook so you can argue that cleaning and cooking is not just women’s work. Yes, historically stay at home moms took care of the house and offspring but times have changed so mutual effort is now the smart thing to do.

Trying to change human opinions as a public speaker is much harder than changing a one on one opinion where you can get immediate feedback from the one that you are trying to persuade or convince. Public speaking is persuading from a distance and that requires additional skills which don’t have to be used in one on one persuading which entails a lot of questioning, feedback, and two way discussion in general.

In one on one persuasion it is very important to do most of the listening and only short and sweet head nods and brief responses showing respect for the others opinions. Using phrases such as “I know where you are coming from” and “That makes a lot of sense” shows a respect for another’s opinions.

Asking probing questions to determine all the pros and cons of the situation and probing for possible objections to your point of view are also important because they will have to be addressed and in doing so you may uncover some flaws in your point of view which will need attention or change. There is seldom a perfect opinion and yours may have some flaws too which you should admit to and hopefully correct.

Try not to be overly confident, aggressive, and don’t proselytize with a basic viewpoint that you are a know it all. This will automatically put the listener in a defensive mode with a tendency to disagree or say no to whatever you may have to say. Try to stay calmly in discussion mode and not in intense argument or debate mode.

Sometimes partial agreement is better than no agreement at all. We are really talking about the art of compromising here so there is a win win situation for both even though one or both parties don’t get everything that they wanted. Sometimes it is even smart to agree to disagree and leave the issue unresolved for the time being.

Use statistical consensus if it exists in what you are trying to persuade because many people are motivated by the herd instinct and want to frequently be in the majority with their opinions. This approach can be dangerous with teenagers since peer pressure is a statistical consensus or what the majority is doing. If the majority is using drugs of some kind then this does not mean that you should be doing it also.

Very briefly,

if someone likes you,

if you are an expert or authority figure,

if you do them a favor first,

if many have been persuaded already,

if they have made a commitment, and

if scarcity is emphasized then you are more likely to persuade successfully, especially if you are trying to persuade someone into buying something.


Before trying to persuade someone you have to assess

who you want to persuade,

about what,

how you will persuade, and

when you will attempt persuasion.


Whom do you want to persuade?

If you are in a position of authority over someone then you will have more success in persuading that person. If you are the boss with expertise then you may be very persuasive about job related issues but not necessarily in topics or opinions outside the job sphere.

If you are a parent authority figure then you will have a greater probability of persuading your offspring even though realistically you may occasionally have to use some coercion or the threat of punishment to get them to do what you want.

If you have expertise in a field or are in a position of authority then your relevant opinions will be more respected and your persuasive powers will be greater.

You will probably also be better able to persuade your spouse or close friend with whom you have an honest, sincere, and trusting relationship. Close associates who may admire and respect you will usually be more persuaded by you than if you try to persuade total strangers or casual friends.

If you use authority figure opinions or statistics which show that most humans believe or behave a certain way then you will be more persuasive because most humans generally respect authority and want to be accepted as part of the majority or don’t want to seem like loners.


What do you want to persuade about?

You must also realize that persuading one to change a strong religious, political, or sports belief or a strong opinion will be almost impossible and not worth the effort. It is much different if you are trying to persuade someone to buy information, goods, or services from you where a human may actually have a desire, need, want, or interest in what you are selling or offering.

Persuading your spouse to do something at home like taking out the garbage out on a regular basis, spending more time with offspring, or doing you a big favor is possible but you may have to do something in return to be persuasive enough.

If you are trying to persuade someone then assess whether the persuasion will lead to mutual benefit in some way. If you can demonstrate that you gain something more than just a boost to your ego and the human whom you are trying to persuade will gain something good by being persuaded then the probability of being persuasive goes up greatly.

Before you begin to persuade first ask whether there will be any benefits for one party or both if the persuasion is successful or goes through.


How will you persuade?

If you compliment or boost someone’s ego and make them emotionally feel good first then you will often have more success with your persuasive attempts.

If you first probe the possible responses or opinions of the one whom you are trying to persuade and listen carefully to what they have to say, then you may put yourself in a better strategic position and be able to fine tune your persuasive attempts to the needs, desires, and wants of the human. After listening carefully to the initial responses or opinions you may decide that persuasion may be a waste of time.

If you are confident, enthusiastic, and communicate clearly and understandably then you will be more persuasive.

If you use real life examples in the human’s life or your own to try and prove your point then you will be more successful in persuading. If you can relay an interesting story which backs up your point of view then you will be more convincing in your persuasive attempts.

If you have documented facts then you will sometimes be more persuasive.

If you have thoroughly analyzed a problem or problems with the pros and cons and have plausible solutions to them backed up by facts then you should be more persuasive.

If you can demonstrate or show that something bad or terrible will happen if the human is not persuaded then you may be a more successful persuader.

Remember that threatening someone into doing something rather than persuading them will get results if you are in a position of authority but the human adult whom you are threatening into doing something may not be persuaded that it was the right thing to do and may resent your coercive action and their respect for you may decrease.


When should you persuade?

It should be obvious that if you are trying to persuade a human and they are too tired or too busy then you will have to pick another time to try and persuade. Also persuasion sometimes requires persistence and you may have to frequently try to persuade sometimes using a slightly different approach each time and the time that it may take before being successful may be a week, month, or even a year.

If there is a sense of urgency created in the one that you are trying to persuade then they are more likely to respond more quickly and affirmatively and this applies more to selling something to someone.


Here is an attempt at changing your teenager’s opinion that marijuana usage is not a big thing since so many humans are into it and has become legal in Colorado.

Ask some probing questions first.

Do you think a person has the right to do with his body whatever he or she wishes including drugs?

Do you think marijuana is habit forming for some?

Do you think regular marijuana usage does not affect job performance or thinking? (back this up with factual research)

Do you think that marijuana usage and excessive alcohol usage simultaneously will cause greater driving impairment?

Do you think minors should be able to use marijuana?

Do you think parents who use marijuana a lot will be bad role models for their offspring?

Do you know that excessive marijuana usage by minors results in psychological problems and bad performance in school? (back this up with factual research)

Would you let your 4 year old smoke marijuana? Why not?

Is marijuana a gateway to more addictive drugs? (not an established fact but a more probable yes)

Sometimes black market marijuana is laced with shitty chemicals to get you coming back for more or you can’t trust the quality of it and are sometimes playing Russian roulette with your brain.

Do you know that about 10 percent of the Dutch marijuana users are severely addicted to the marijuana habit? (back this up with factual statistics from reputable research)

In 2015 about 30% of Americans have had an alcohol use disorder and one in 7 or more than 10% are chronic users on a yearly basis and the problem is getting worse. Add chronic alcohol use to habitual chronic marijuana use if legalized nationally and you have over 20% of the population fucked up on two drugs and there are plenty more legal and illegal mind altering drugs to choose from.

Does marijuana unnaturally increase your appetite?

Is pot smoking just as harmful as cigarette smoke in the long duration?


Occasional marijuana usage can tragically lead to excessive usage which can impair job performance, thinking ability, and become a bad role model for personal offspring who will have greater psychological and academic problems in school with heavy usage.

About 10% of pot smokers will become an addicted or habitual burden upon society just as excessive alcohol usage is a great cost to society. There is also the greater probability that marijuana usage will lead to other forms of more addictive drug use in a permissive society causing more social havoc and misery in society.

Drugs of any kind such as opiods, cocaine, marijuana, alcohol, etc. artificially alter the mind’s chemistry and long duration usage is usually detrimental to good brain health or functioning. If you want to lead a productive life and be a success then drug usage will only handicap your ability to achieve wanted goals in life.

Escape from reality with marijuana and alcohol or cocaine usage and reality may come crashing down on you with a failed marriage, failed relationships, and maybe even job failure. There is no proof that average marijuana usage will ruin your life. It just makes the probability that you will have detrimental bad side effects in your life more likely, especially if you become a chronic user.

You should fear rampant personal and social use of marijuana and similar drugs in society because future generations and you personally and your family will probably be adversely affected in the long duration.

Finally, I don’t get high on marijuana and get drunk to feel good or reduce stress. Why should you? I don’t need artificial highs but prefer natural highs to feel good such as exercise and drug free social interaction. Our home is a drug free zone with punishment if caught and you will have to wait till your 18 and you live by yourself to use it freely if you choose to do so.

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Conclusion: n. a judgment and/or decision made relatively impulsively and/or after some reasoning

Most conclusions are reached relatively impulsively but in science and statistical analyses some mathematically based reasoning is used.

Reasoning is only possible with accurate definitions and unfortunately in most subjective subject areas of the liberal arts very little reason exists if at all since so much of the reasoning is not based on logical principles but most conclusions are made based on prior subjective human experience and subjective human consensus or norms.

What is also a truism is that very frequently there are really more than one conclusions which can be made after evaluating circumstances and factual evidence. Most causes do not just result in a single effect but in many effects from which you often have to choose one or prioritize the many possible conclusions in terms of relevance. Many causes almost never result in one conclusion only or one effect but many effects are possible.

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Objective: adj. reasoning unchanged by emotion and/or personal opinion and based primarily on viewed facts and/or on the use of the scientific method


Objectivity in human interactions is the ideal but the reality is that subjective judgements are rampant in a liberal arts society which tries to impose social norms on humans which are seldom based on reasoned logical assessments about reality.

Social and political correctness dominates society and if you logically disagree then you are frequently confronted with ridicule, put downs, insults, name calling, and harsh criticism to get you to conform to the powerful subjective status quo social and political norms.

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Principle: n. a basic generalization that is accepted as true and which can be used as a basis for reasoning and/or a discussion of behavior norms

Eat healthy organic food and get enough exercise are two principles which can keep you healthy and relatively disease free with much energy to live life fully. Add to this the principle-get enough sleep, and your basic minimal human needs are met.

Principles to live by are behavioral principles but there are also scientific principles such as Archimedes principle which predicts which objects will float or sink.

There are ethical principles and moral principles which help you to function effectively in society.

A human without vital principles to live by drifts catastrophically through life encountering much hardship and misery.

Principles can vary greatly from one human to the next but the moral principles don’t lie, don’t steal, and don’t commit adultery should be practiced by everyone who wants to maintain good interactive relationships with other human beings and maintain a good reputation while doing so.

What principles do you believe in and live by? Think about it and then do something to live by them more faithfully.

If you liked this evergreen truth blog then read more of them, about 1900 so far, or read one or more of my evergreen truth books, especially COMMON SENSE, rays of truth in a human world filled with myths and deceptions.

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time for discussion

Logic: n. being skilled in accurate reasoning


Reason: v. to try to achieve an accurate (righta conclusion(s) and/or judgment(s)) and/ or (inference(s) from a fact(s)) and/or (hypothesis(s) and/or opinion(s)) and/or belief(s) with the use of the probabilities between cause(s) and effect(s) correspondences and/or set(s) and subset(s) correspondences


There should be no “logical” ARGUMENTS filled with emotional bias but they should rather be “logical” DISCUSSIONS with as little emotion as possible expressed during the exchange of propositions and conclusions or judgments. An argument or attack on someone’s opinions mimics the violence of physical conflict where any tactic is acceptable as long as you come out the winner and not loser. The winner take all and the loser is left with nothing mentality must be absent from any “logical” discussion and the end result may actually not be certainty but a probability of one or more conclusions or judgments or no conclusions or judgments at all.

The domain of logical thinking is an attempt at establishing objective cause and effect relationships which science excels in because of mathematics. Without the use of mathematics or merely using statistical probabilities, propositions and conclusions or causes and effects can’t be proved conclusively because they frequently can’t be repeated experimentally in the lab with identical results.

WHAT are we discussing logically? Is it possible to discuss everything logically or does logic have its limitations in everyday usage since so few humans think logically in the subjective emotionally biased liberal arts world which we are living in. The best logical usage is with objectivity and it is highly improbable that you will come up with an agreed upon logical conclusion or judgement discussing strongly held subjective emotionally biased opinions or beliefs.

There are errors in accurate reasoning or logic which should be avoided as much as possible. If you are arguing then making these reasoning errors will sometimes increase the probability that the argument will increase in emotional intensity and get very angry. Here is a list of 9 discussion and/or argument errors or 9 don’t dos.

Don’t attack a human’s character and only discuss a character flaw if it seems to be the primary reason for the discussion and/or problem to be solved.

Don’t misrepresent and/or exaggerate the opposing opinion hoping to make it easier to refute by intentionally and unjustly trying to make it less believable.

Don’t use subsets to represent the set.

Don’t always assume that just because something occurred before in time then it must always be the cause.

Don’t always insist that your conclusion and/or judgement is the only one possibility even though that is frequently your goal or desire.

Don’t ask the human with the opposing opinion to do your convincing responsibility for you which is erroneously called the burden of proof because you are really not proving anything but merely trying to persuade with plausible reasons and/or communications.

Don’t assume a cause and effect relationship unless there is a probable logical connection or correspondence between them based on some historical precedence or experience. New cause effect discoveries in human behavior are highly improbable.

Don’t automatically assume that the popularity of the proposition and conclusion or the opinion makes it true.

Don’t always assume that an authority figure is infallible or has or is always communicating truthful facts or opinions. If it is a respected and truthful authority figure based on prior experience most of the time then don’t question everything and every time he or she says something, especially on unimportant matters.

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Logic: n. being skilled in accurate reasoning

The more mathematical our reasoning is the more logical it is and if science can be included in our reasoning then it becomes the ultimate in explaining the existence of phenomenon in this universe.

Some reasoning is not very mathematical and it is cause effect reasoning or the assumption that one or more causes create one or more effects.

Deductive and inductive reasoning is really a skill at following a cause effect chain from beginning to end (deductive reasoning) and from end to beginning (inductive reasoning).

The concept of spatial arrangements using sets and subsets to describe the universe makes the most sense logically and is a way of grouping things and/or events into connected clusters.

Logic is really making accurate correspondences between movement or verbs and/or the environment or nouns. If we accurately describe the world and the way it operates then it has predictive value and we can make similar descriptions about the world in the future or past. If we make inaccurate descriptions of the world in the present then it is not very useful and has little or no predictive value about the future or past.

Nothing is more important than accurate descriptions of words or definitions because if our definitions are vague and inaccurate then their use in the world will also be rather vague and inaccurate.

The humanities and pseudo scientific politics and sociology uses badly defined words to try and describe reality and it is relatively useless with little predictive value and is mostly a statement of statistical norms and not cause effect relationships.

To make the humanities more logical I have attempted to define words more logically and have new more accurate definitions for love, hate, empathy, pity, cruelty, steal, deception, etc. and this more logical approach makes greater sense than ever before and makes possible more rigorous or accurate descriptions of reality.

They are not scientific definitions so their predictive value is not absolute but at least it is a step in the right direction in making language more logical and less emotionally biased. More logical definitions means a smarter language and humans who use the words with greater understanding will make smarter more logical choices in their lives.

If you have accurate reasoning ability in an area of expertise then you can be said to be logical in that area of expertise under many circumstances.

You are being logical if you can accurately find correspondences between a cause and effect or a series of causes and effects.

You are also logical if you can find relationships or correspondences between a set and subsets and between the subsets themselves.

You are also logical if you make accurate probabilistic communications about events.

You are logical if you accurately use historical precedents and present observations to make relatively accurate predictions about the future.

You are logical if you can use mathematics to describe the relationships or correspondences between variables in physics, chemistry, and biology.

You are logical if you use the scientific method to discover new facts, relationships, or correspondences between variables, sets and subsets.

You are logical if you can make accurate correspondences.

You are logical if you accurately predict the future behavior of a human based on historical precedent or based on the behaviors of that human or a group of humans similar in behavior to that human.

You are more logical if you use words with accurate logical definitions and not vague badly defined ones.

Finally you are logical if you can accurately observe someone’s emotional state and can predict another’s behavior relatively accurately. You are also logical if you can control or change the emotional state of another in a relatively predictable way.


If you want a complete list of the new logical definitions for words then read my evergreen truth book SCIENTIFIC THESAURUS which has over 6000 logical word definitions.

If you liked this evergreen truth blog then read more of them, about 1000 so far, or read one or more of my evergreen truth books, especially COMMON SENSE, rays of truth in a human world filled with myths and deceptions.

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Opinion: n. communicating a transient belief which is subject to change if confronted by logical reasoning or experiences which nullify samer belief

Opinions are frequently transient beliefs which we have about things which are relatively easily subject to change if we are shown that our opinion is untrue or not the whole truth.

We may temporarily believe that a new exercise routine will help us to lose weight. We try it and it fails so we change our opinion and conclude that it doesn’t help us to lose weight.

We may feel that one way to get good behavior from offspring is to bribe them or pay them every time that they behave very well. This may result in blackmail where the offspring will only behave well if you pay them or they may misbehave even when paid. Your opinion was wrong and bad circumstances force you to change your opinion or belief that money will solve bad behavior.

We frequently have favorable opinions about what we like and unfavorable opinions about what we don’t like. Our favorable opinion about a favorite food, celebrity, or appliance may all change if we get bored with our favorite food and find a better replacement, if our favorite celebrity mistreats a spouse or develops a drug addiction, and if the “reliable” appliance breaks down sooner than expected.

Sometimes  with logic and new facts someone will show that our opinions are erroneous and we change our opinions without new personal experiences playing a major role in the opinion change. Humans whom we trust and respect can also change our opinions more readily than humans which we don’t respect and trust.

Strong beliefs are not opinions easily changed so if you believe in moral behavior then you are highly unlikely to switch to immoral behavior. If you don’t believe in lying, stealing, and adultery then chances are you will take those beliefs to the grave and not change them.

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Reason: v. to try to achieve an accurate (righta conclusion(s) and/or judgment(s)) and/ or (inference(s) from a fact(s)) and/or (hypothesis(s)) and/or opinion(s)) and/or belief(s) and/or sensing with the use of the probabilities between cause(s) and effect(s) correspondences and/or set(s) and subset(s) correspondences

Most unscientific reasoning tries to connect a cause and effect or events in a probabilistic way using times as reference points.

The most successful reasoning exists in science using the scientific method of reasoning with the aid of mathematics and the concepts of sets, subsets, and variables. The results of this reasoning is frequently certainty and a 100% probability or a statistical numerical probability.

In human behavior and analysis of events there is a certain probability that exists between a cause and an effect or between relatable or corresponding events.

Deductive reasoning starts with a cause or causes and tries to deduce what the possible effects might be based on historical precedent or direct observation. Sometimes the effect or effects become a cause or causes in a chain or series of cause effect relationships or correspondences.

Inductive reasoning starts with an effect or effects and tries to determine what the cause or causes might have been or are based on historical precedent or observation.

Factual events which can be verified or known to exist are the most useful in making cause effect relationships or correspondences but some reasoning about behavior is frequently based upon historical precedents of the parties involved.

Some probabilistic conclusions are made about events which exist without seeming causes but appear to be largely random in nature.

If a human has an impeccable reputation for honesty then the probability that he is lying is minimal.  Similarly there is a high probability that one with a bad reputation is probably lying about something.

If someone has been late for work about once a month for the past six months then the probability that he will be late about once a month for the following six months is relatively high based on historical precedent.

If you define sympathy as a subset of empathy then you can conclude that there are more empathetic behaviors than sympathetic ones although the actual number may not be known. This kind of reasoning involves synthesis or analysis of a set and subsets and then making conclusions about the relationships between the set and subsets.


Reasoning is communications about the probabilities between a cause(s) and an effect(s) or between events and communications about the relationships or correspondences between a set and its subsets or the relationships or correspondences between the subsets themselves.

Probability communications are made about the past, present, and future. Historical precedent and/or direct observations of facts are frequently the most useful in making predictions about the future.

If you reason without an understanding of probabilities, sets and subsets, and historical facts or accurate observation of facts then your reasoning ability is very bad and frequently biased by intuitive emotional reactions which are frequently inaccurate.

If you can predict emotional states of a human by observation and then control or change the emotions and behavior in a predictable way then you are using reasoning ability.

It is no wonder that politics uses very little reasoning or logic but mostly appeals to strong emotional beliefs or opinions. Humans use very little reasoning when interacting with new acquaintances but frequently make biased stereotypical conclusions about other humans based on scant information or facts which results in much misunderstanding and conflict

If you liked this evergreen truth blog then read more of them, approximately 600 so far, and one or more of my evergreen truth books, especially COMMON SENSE, rays of truth in a human world filled with myths and deceptions.