16PF means – Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire
1. Abstractedness: Imaginative versus practical
2. Apprehension: Worried versus confident
3.Dominance: Forceful versus submissive
4.Emotional Stability: Calm versus high-strung
5.Liveliness: Spontaneous versus restrained
6.Openness to Change: Flexible versus attached to the familiar
7.Perfectionism: Controlled versus undisciplined
8.Privateness: Discreet versus open
9.Reasoning: Abstract versus concrete
10.Rule-Consciousness:Conforming versus non-conforming
11.Self-Reliance:Self-sufficient versus dependent
12.Sensitivity: Tender-hearted versus tough-minded.
13.Social Boldness: Uninhibited versus shy
14.Tension: Impatient versus relaxed
15.Vigilance: Suspicious versus trusting
16.Warmth: Outgoing versus reserved
Statements are used to identify the category which you are in and the degree to which you exhibit these 16 factors or traits but the problem is that there is a lot of overlap and it is really a subjective evaluation not based on actual evidence of a person’s character. At best it is a ballpark figure that you can come up with to express the degree to which you possess the 16 factors or traits.
I will use one question as an example: ‘I take control of things” -strongly disagree, disagree, neither agree or disagree, agree, and strongly agree.
If you answered strongly agree then let’s try to place the response in one or more of the factor categories. How practical, confident, forceful, attached to the familiar, controlled, concrete, conforming, self-sufficient, tough-minded, uninhibited, and impatient are you on a scale of 1 to 5 if you take control of things? There is no possible answer that makes any sense. If you are very controlling then you may be impractical, overly confident to a fault, too forceful, overly attached to the familiar, controlled but not in control, concrete or somewhat irrational, overly conforming, delusionally self-sufficient, overly tough- minded, and uninhibited to a fault, and perhaps too impatient. Once again, if you are very controlling then to what degree on a scale of 1 to 5 do you have the mentioned 11factors or traits which seem to have something to do with the degree of strong control that you have? Impossible to tell!!
If you answered strongly disagree that I take control of things then how practical, worried, submissive, flexible, undisciplined, conforming, dependent, shy, relaxed, and trusting are you on a scale of 1 to 5? It is impossible to tell although your dependency is probably very great if you let others control you. You may also be a great conformist but to what degree on a scale of 1 to 5?
“I do not like abstract ideas” was one statement in the abstractedness factor but then to what degree are you imaginative or practical on a scale of 1 to 5? If you strongly agree that abstract ideas displease you then does that make you a very practical person? Impossible to tell accurately!!
I took the questionnaire test and since I answered truthfully my results were believable to some extent. So maybe there is some ballpark figure validity to the test but if you lie because you want to radiate a sense of personal greatness, competence, and friendliness or answer randomly to many of the questions then the test is pure bunk.
One other failing of the categorization is the dubious link between what a human thinks and what he actually does or his or her actual behavior. An imaginative human is basically a human who thinks imaginatively but what is imaginative behavior? A human may think practically and we usually can assess practical behavior within a ball park figure. So is abstractedness a thinking ability or both a thinking and behaving ability? Abstractedness is never defined accurately so we just have a very vague idea of what it actually means using the imaginative vs. practical dichotomy.
Cattell doesn’t define the words that he uses and this results in vague inaccurate conceptualizations which should be degrees of a concept rather than one concept vs. another only theoretically diametrically opposed.
Abstractedness: imaginative vs. practical
If you define abstractedness: n. a concept(s) with minimal one to one correspondence with a fact(s) then the more removed from fact or reality you are then the more abstract you become. How could you possibly measure this with a questionnaire?
Imagine: v. to creatively think and visualize in the mind
Practical: adj. utilitarian
Abstract: adj. a concept(s) with minimal one to one correspondence with a fact(s)
With these basic definitions you could assume that abstractedness is a question of creativity vs. utilitarian but how do you assess creativity and utilitarian tendencies with a questionnaire? Impossible to assess or do accurately and use a scale of 1 to 5.
Let’s continue with apprehension or worried vs. confident.
Apprehension: n. sensing anxiety about a future bad subset(s)
Worry: v. to be excessively (concerned and anxious and uncertain) and wasting thinking time with a (real and/or imagined) (future and/or present)(danger(s) and/or event(s)) and/or subset(s)
Confident: adj. sensing freedom from most doubt when trying to achieve a subset(s) and this frequently exists with a large belief in oneself and in one’s abilities
Apprehension is basically sensing anxiety about a future bad event and/or circumstance. You can worry about all kinds of dangerous possibilities and it is basically an emotional response to your environment and past experiences. Confidence or courageousness is also an emotional disposition which depends on how successful you have been in life setting goals and achieving them and creates a belief in oneself and in one’s ability to get things done.
Do confident or courageous humans also worry to some extent? Yes, they do but they more quickly overcome the worry and proceed with action rather than remaining in a worried state of mind. To determine confidence you have to ask questions about courage and competence and the time it takes for one to proceed with action and I found no such questions.
Concern, anxiousness, and uncertainty about present or future, real or imagined dangers is what worrying is all about. How much is the worry a question of concern, uncertainty, and anxiousness about one’s lack of ability to do something was not tested with appropriate statements. How long you worry about something is also important because few humans realistically worry all the time.
Worry and confidence are not pure opposites and there are plenty of humans who have little confidence but do not worry about their lack of confidence or are not necessarily worriers. Determining the degree of apprehension on a scale of 1 to 5 is extremely subjective and I would venture to say that there is no statistical evidence to verify the degree of apprehension in any one individual.
Dominance: forceful vs. submissive
Dominance: n. controlling the most and/or having the largest effect(s) on a subset(s)
Forceful: adj. causing a subset(s) to move and with a lifeform(s) it is when moved against its will bodily
Submissive: adj. obeying a superior force and/or authority
Aggressive: adj. pursuing a goal(s) forcefully and/or threateningly which may include (body contact and/or violence) and/or a ((verbal threat(s) and/or verbal attack(s)) and/or physical attack(s))
Forceful is a badly chosen word since it implies the use of physical force against a human. More appropriate would be to use the word aggressive which implies appeals to authority, verbal threats, verbal attacks, and only rarely physical attacks.
Can you really determine how dominant an individual is? A human can be relatively submissive at work but very dominant in the home or with his or her spouse and offspring. In an hierarchical structure dominance is very important but in team leadership aggressiveness is frowned upon by employees to some extent and you have to be able to lead motivationally with emotional intelligence which is only occasionally overt aggressiveness.
I found no questions which dealt with dominance in the workplace or at home so once again the questionnaire is highly subjective and determining the degree of obedience to authority or dominance with questions is highly inaccurate.
Emotional stability: calm vs. high-strung
Emotional: adj. a very intense mental and/or brain sensation and/or the behaviors which exist with samer sensation
Calm: v. to decrease excitement and frequently to a minimum
High-strung: n. nervous and easily upset (dictionary definition)
Nervous: adj. low intensity anxiety
Defining emotional stability in terms of calm vs. easily upset and low intensity anxiety is incredibly simplistic. Emotional intelligence determines to a large extent whether you are emotionally stable or not. Humans are usually calm when doing habitual behaviors or when demonstrating competence in a skill set that they have. They may be very prone to becoming upset if they are being abused or are placed in an insecure environment which they are not used to.
Then there are the bipolar and depressed calm individuals who really have “mental illness” issues and can’t be considered to be an emotionally healthy part of the population. Their numbers are approximately 25% of the population which could be considered to be emotionally unstable. Even psychiatrists are very subjective in their evaluation of emotional stability and to make a claim that a questionnaire can determine your emotional stability is preposterous!
Emotional intelligence: n. the ability to accurately assess a human’s emotional circumstance and to proceed to communicate appropriately and/or to motivate samer human to achieve a goal(s)
The emotionally intelligent do not speak in a monotone calm voice when they communicate but express degrees of emotional intensity to get others to listen to them and motivate others to do well. If you raise your voice does that mean that you are upset or just trying to boldly get your point across with passion? The audacity to claim that emotional stability is just a question of being calm or high-strung is preposterous and very ignorant. An absence of accurate definitions is really the crux of the problem which no amount of verbosity will overcome.
Liveliness: spontaneous vs. restrained
Spontaneous: adj. existing as a result of sudden impulsive and/or speedy action(s) without premeditation and/or external stimulus
Impulsive: adj. doing a subset(s) almost instantly without conscientious forethought
Restrain: v. to limit and/or to prevent free movement and/or free expression
Liveliness: n. the quality of being outgoing, energetic, and enthusiastic (dictionary definition)
What in the world is liveliness? How frequently is a human lively and under what circumstances is the human lively? Are you outgoing, energetic, and enthusiastic all the time, once or twice a day, once or twice a week, or almost never? When are you being outgoing or energetic or enthusiastic or are you all these 3 things simultaneously and all the time? No questionnaire even hints at these variables which are very important if you are going to say something valid about the state of a human’s liveliness.
Are impulsive or spontaneous humans really more outgoing, energetic, and enthusiastic or are they more outgoing, energetic, and enthusiastic when they are among friends rather than in a public situation? Once again it depends on the time, location, and the humans that you are interacting with when discussing how lively a human is. Pick the wrong time, place, and humans and the liveliness disappears.
Is outgoing just another word for friendliness? Is verbal enthusiasm what we are talking about or is it active enthusiasm at some activity or both?
Does a restrained personality mean an inhibited one? Inhibited seems to be a more inclusive word to use but it is more complex and how do all of it’s components relate to liveliness? If you are inhibited then are you less lively under most circumstances and what circumstances are they?
Inhibit: v. to sense selfrestraint primarily because of some (doubt and/or anxiety) and/or absence of selfconfidence
Once again if you have inaccurate definitions for the words that you are using then there is no certainty in measuring something in terms of degree from 1 to 5.
At this point I am tempted to call Cattell’s 16 personality factors or traits and the claimed ability to measure them in degrees of 1 to 5 a sham and unworthy of further discussion but I frankly don’t have many other more important things to do at the moment so I will continue the putdown.
Perfection: controlled vs. undisciplined
Undisciplined: adj. using inadequate selfcontrol and/or disobeying many good and/or right behaviors and/or rules
Controlled: adj. leading with (an action(s) and/or an authoritative word(s)) and/or having power over a (personal action(s) and/or event(s))
Perfection: n. accurately and totally completing using the standards and/or goals which humans have tried to create for completeness
Shouldn’t disciplined replace controlled as the opposite of undisciplined? So perfection would be disciplined vs. undisciplined. Perfection would thus be degrees of discipline and control is just one way to become disciplined since it also requires much practice and standards of excellence. There are disciplined humans who are not perfectionists in life as a whole so once again if you don’t define perfection accurately then you have no complete grasp over the subject. Perfect behavior is impossible to achieve since there are so many personality dimensions or traits and you are probably not perfect in all of them.
Seeking to be perfect at a job or profession may be admirable but does that automatically translate into perfect marital and human relationships? What are you a perfectionist at and where are you a perfectionist are two very important questions to ask before you can label a personality as being perfectionist. Orderly, repetitive, disciplined, controlled, and seeking to fulfill standards of excellence is a much better way of trying to get at the meaning of perfection as a human trait but an accurate definition of perfection is preferred.
Privateness: discrete vs. open
Privacy: n. behaviors of one or more human(s) which are hidden and frequently not public knowledge Privateness is really an invented word which means privacy.
Discreet: adj. careful and cautious in one’s speech and/or actions to avoid offense and/or to gain advantage
Ask yourself is a person who believes in privacy one who is also socially correct and tries not to offend others and/or to gain advantage. Chances are many private individuals are not very discreet in their interactions with others and are merely trying to hide all the bad things which they have done in their lives and use privacy as a cover up for their transgressions or ill health. Discreet humans are often shrewd and want to put their best foot forward and want to seem better than they really are in public and are really posturing or pretending to some extent.
What in the world does an open human do? Is that human one who has no secrets and reveals any information about themselves which another human may ask? Even very honest and moral humans do not reveal all of their secrets or intimate details or facts about their lives. So is open just another word for appropriate honesty?
Ok, assume that you want to determine degrees of privacy or privateness in an individual. What kind of questions would you ask? How many secrets do you have? Are you more secretive than others? What things don’t you tell others about?
I answer all questions asked me -strongly disagree, disagree, neither agree nor disagree, agree, strongly agree. I guess if the human miraculously answered strongly agree then he or she would be an extremely open human or an incredibly honest one.
What does privateness really mean? Does it mean that you have many bad secrets to hide or that you just do not want to reveal all the intimate details of your private life? How do you honestly determine the degree of privateness on a scale of 1 to 5 when the human is trying to hide their private information. Mission impossible!
Reasoning: abstract vs. concrete
Reason: v. to try to achieve an accurate (right conclusion(s) and/or judgment(s)) and/ or (inference(s) from a fact(s)) and/or (hypothesis(s)) and/or opinion(s)) and/or belief(s) and/or sensing with the use of the probabilities between cause(s) and effect(s) correspondences and/or set(s) and subset(s) correspondences
Is reasoning a personality trait or merely a way in which the mind processes information? The human has an abstract or concrete personality. Absurd! Yes, and try to determine the degrees of reasoning ability on a scale of 1 to 5 when you have no clue as to the real meaning or definition of reason.
Rule-consciousness: conforming vs. non-conforming
Conformity: n. relatively accurately corresponding within accepted limits for a normative subset(s) which is frequently within one standard of deviation
Rule: n. controlling with demanded behaviors which are frequently recorded and enforced and obeyed for (safety and/or order) and/or (predictable similarity and/or social bonding)
There are many humans who obey the rules on the job but are notorious non-conformists in private and sometimes even in public away from the job. Rule-consciousness is then degrees of conformity which could be measured with statements to some degree of accuracy if you considered both on the job conformity and private life conformity but the test questionnaire did not make this important distinction.
I try to follow the rules, I break rules, I oppose authority, and I resist authority followed by strongly disagree, disagree, neither agree nor disagree, agree, strongly agree could to some extent determine the degree of conformity of an individual as long as he or she was honest in their response. I really believe that almost no one would answer I strongly oppose authority, I strongly resist authority, and I strongly break rules.
Sensitivity: tender-hearted vs. tough-minded
Sensitivity: n. having and/or displaying a quick and discerning empathy
What in the world is tender-hearted? Is it an empathetic, gentle, kind, sentimental, and generous to a fault human? And what is a tough-minded Human? A human who is strong, determined, and able to face up to reality. If tender-hearted is the opposite of tough-minded then shouldn’t tender-hearted be a weak, mercurial, and indecisive human not able to face up to reality?
It seems obvious that tough-minded should mean insensitive or showing or feeling no concern for other’s feelings. An insensitive human is more likely to be called and inconsiderate human rather than a tough-minded one. So it would make sensitivity more a question of empathetic vs. inconsiderate since if you are empathetic then chances are you are also potentially gentler, kinder, more sentimental than your average human. The classification of sensitivity in terms of tender-hearted vs. tough-minded is just basically inaccurate and also wrong to a large degree. Many tough-minded individuals have emotional intelligence and can get along well with other humans so that does not make them insensitive to other’s feelings.
Once again, if you don’t define the words that you are using you run into vague concepts with little meaning or relevance.
Social boldness: uninhibited vs. shy
Uninhibited: n. expressing one’s feelings or thoughts unselfconsciously and without restraint (dictionary definition)
Shy: adj. being timid mostly (because of a fear of social embarrassment and/or because of an absence of many social skills) and/or because of unattractiveness
Isn’t social boldness really extroversion so it would be a question of extroversion vs. introversion rather than uninhibited which is a relatively wild form of expression and/or behavior without much restraint. Shy which is often a small child afraid of social embarrassment because of an absence of many social skills or maybe because of unattractiveness. Many introverts could be falsely mislabeled as being shy when in reality they just don’t like social drama as much as extroverted individuals.
If you are trying to determine Sociability or social-boldness which is a question of extroversion vs. introversion then you could probably come up with ball park figures on a scale of 1 to 5.
Tension: impatient vs. relaxed
Tension: n. mental and/or emotional strain
Tension is therefore the degree of mental and/or emotional anxiety, stress, or worry and is not just a measure of impatience vs. patience which is the opposite of impatience and not relaxed.
Impatient: adj. eager anxiety for a subset(s) to end existence and/or begin existence
Relax: v. to decrease the impact and/or strength of a lifeform subset(s) such as (anxiety and/or excitement) and/or (muscles and/or rules) and/or behavior
Eager anxiety vs. minimal anxiety and/or excitement is apparently what tension means so what statements would separate anxiety from stress and from worry which are two other forms of tension?
Tension is definitely more than just impatience vs. patience so the definition of tension is vague and inaccurate and determining the degree of tension is fraught with error.
Vigilance: suspicious vs. trusting
Vigilance: n. carefully observing for potential (dangers and/or difficulties) and/or for actual suspicious activity(s)
Trusting: n. having confidence that one will rarely be (disappointed and/or victimized) and/or (defrauded and/or deceived) and/or lied to by another
Suspicious: adj. judging intuitively with little evidence that a subset(s) is a probable cause of an event(s) in the past and/or the future
Vigilance is more than just being suspicious or not and includes carefully observing the environment for potential dangers and/or difficulties. Mistrustful vs. trusting would be a more accurate representation but trust needs integrity, sincerity, dependability, competence, and commitment. You probably didn’t realize that vigilance should include these five personality elements in any valid discussion of the topic of vigilance.
Mistrust forms when a human detects an absence of some integrity or honesty and morality, when a human is undependable, insincere, incompetent, and non committal and it is more than just a question of being suspicious which arises when we sense some mistrust in an individual. Initial suspicion is possible and is often transient and is soon replaced by mistrust which is what eventually develops when a human violates honest and ethical behavior to too great a degree or becomes untrustworthy.
Determining degrees of vigilance is much more complex than just questions or statements of mistrusting vs. trusting or untrustworthy vs. trusting. Once again Cattell is groping in the dark and doesn’t know what he is talking about because he never defines his words and is just working by the seat of his pants with vague intuitiveness.
Warmth: outgoing vs. reserved
Outgoing: n. friendly and socially confident (dictionary definition)
Reserved: n. slow to reveal emotions and/or opinions (dictionary definition)
This one takes the cake of absurdity. What in the world is a warm personality trait? Outgoing just basically means an extroverted human who is friendly and socially confident. Reserved could just basically mean an introverted human who is slow to reveal his or her emotions and/or opinions. What in the world is a warm and cold personality trait? Does empathy, kindness, consideration, gentleness, sentimentality, sympathy, etc. make you a warmer person? And if this is the case then outgoing and reserved aren’t even close approximations to what warmth really means. Is a cold person one who is non empathetic, unkind, inconsiderate, abusive, unsympathetic, etc.? What statements would you use to test for degrees of warmth or degrees of empathy, kindness, considerateness, sympathy, etc.?
As I have hinted many times before, Cattell does not have a very logical mind and has not defined the words that he uses. The result is a polyglot of word juxtapositions which are not polar opposites and the words that they represent or the 16 factors or traits are often not personality traits at all and remain undefined.
Cattell is a typical historical psychologist working in a very subjective, biased, and intuitive way. His questionnaire has some nice questions from which you can learn something if they are honestly answered but using the results to counsel humans on future career paths is frankly an exercise in futility, especially when you try to pigeon hole the answers into 16 poorly defined factors or traits. Yes, you could probably find out the degree of sociability and conformity the human has but not much beyond that.
Until psychologist and psychiatrists start to define the words that they use their profession will frankly be a very subjective, personally biased, intuitive world that no serious logical human will respect. A vague, inaccurate, and subjective profession is sadly the state of psychology and psychiatry today and on into the foreseeable future until someone has the balls or brains to start defining the words that they use and spreads the definitions throughout the professions.
That said I personally liked the questionnaire and you can learn some useful information about yourself if you answer it truthfully. Go to https://openpsychometrics.org/tests/16PF.php, view the questionnaire and after answering it, view the results.
Strongly disagree, Disagree, Neither agree not disagree, Agree, Strongly
I tried to categorize the statements by factors and found 19 related to Social Boldness, 16 for Rule Consciousness, and 13 for Privateness and Reason. Sensitivity has 11, Emotional Stability has 10, Apprehension has 9, Dominance 8, Open to Change 7, Vigilance and Liveliness 6, Perfection 5, Abstractness and Warmth 4, Self-Reliance 3, and I found 0 statements for Tension. Also interesting was that I couldn’t place a handful of statements into any category so I left them blank.
I should mention that REVERSE Social Boldness means that uninhibited vs. shy was reversed to shy vs. uninhibited for some statements. Cattell probably wanted test takers to answer strongly disagree or disagree to some of the statements instead of always answering strongly agree or agree. If you don’t understand what I mean then it is not really important for comprehension since this is a testing technique used and does not generally affect the understanding of the statements.
I take time out for others. Privateness
I know that I am not a special person. Dominance
I take control of things. Sensitivity
I try to forgive and forget. Social boldness
I keep in the background. Social boldness
I can’t do without the company of others. Privateness
I trust others. Vigilance
I am not easily frustrated. Sensitivity
I cheer people up. Reverse of Warmth
I often feel uncomfortable around others. Openness to change or Reverse of Apprehension
I seldom feel blue. Reverse of Sensitivity
I dislike myself. Reverse Apprehension
I take charge. Reverse of Dominance
I let others make the decisions. Dominance
I believe in the importance of art. Reverse of Abstractness
I like to get lost in thought. Reverse of Reasoning
I wait for others to lead the way. Dominance
I am willing to talk about myself. Privateness
I find it difficult to approach others. Social boldness
I enjoy my privacy. Reverse of Privateness
I swim against the current. Rule-Consciousness
I feel guilty when I say “no.” Dominance
I am hard to get to know. Reverse of Privateness or Warmth
I don’t talk a lot. Social Boldness or Reverse of Privateness
I believe in one true religion. Reverse of Rule-Consciousness
I am not easily annoyed. Reverse of Emotional Stability
I feel crushed by setbacks. Openness to Change
I am afraid that I will do the wrong thing. Reverse of Rule-Consciousness
I enjoy being part of a loud crowd. Reverse of Social Boldness
I weigh the pros against the cons. Reasoning
I do unexpected things. Reverse of Social Boldness
I get angry easily. Emotional Stability
I am quiet around strangers. Reverse of Privateness or Reverse of Vigilance
I don’t mind eating alone.
I make people feel at ease. Reverse of Warmth
I use my brain. Reasoning
I have a good word for everyone. Reverse of Sensitivity
I feel desperate. Reverse of Tension or Emotional Stability
I want to be in charge. Reverse of Dominance
I feel comfortable around people. Apprehension
I am the life of the party. Reverse of Social Boldness
I don’t let others discourage me. Apprehension
I enjoy being part of a group. Reverse of Social Boldness
I love to daydream. Reverse of Abstractedness
I distrust people. Reverse of Vigilance
I worry about things. Reverse of Apprehension
I am not easily bothered by things. Reverse of Self-Reliance
I respect authority. Reverse of Rule-Consciousness
I do things that others find strange. Rule-Consciousness
I skip difficult words while reading. Openness to Change
I feel comfortable with myself. Reverse of Self-Reliance
I am exacting in my work. Reverse of Perfectionism
I tend to analyze things. Reasoning
I continue until everything is perfect. Reverse of Perfectionism
I believe that people are basically moral. Vigilance
I am quick to judge others. Reverse of Liveliness
I am relaxed most of the time. Reverse of Emotional Stability
I enjoy silence. Reverse Emotional Stability
I show my feelings. Emotional Stability
I judge people by their appearance. Openness to Change
I prefer variety to routine. Reverse Openness to Change
I never challenge things. Reverse of Rule-Consciousness
I can’t stand being contradicted. Emotional Stability
I try not to think about the needy. Sensitivity
I am easily put out.
I prefer to do things by myself. Reverse Self-Reliance
I get irritated easily. Emotional Stability
I know the answers to many questions. Reasoning
I trust what people say. Vigilance
I like to stand during the national anthem. Reverse Rule-Consciousness
I love flowers. Reverse Sensitivity
I find it hard to forgive others. Emotional Stability
I leave my belongings around. Perfectionism
I feel others’ emotions. Reverse Sensitivity
I let myself be pushed around. Dominance
I don’t like crowded events. Social Boldness
I enjoy hearing new ideas. Rule-Consciousness
I act wild and crazy. Reverse Social Boldness
I read a lot. Reasoning
I try to follow the rules. Reverse Rule-Consciousness
I enjoy wild flights of fantasy. Reverse Abstractedness
I use swear words. Rule-Consciousness
I don’t worry about things that have already happened. Apprehension
I say what I think. Reverse Social Boldness
I am easily hurt. Reverse Sensitivity
I enjoy spending time by myself. Social Boldness
I don’t mind being the center of attention. Reverse Social Boldness
I seldom get lost in thought. Reasoning
I seldom daydream. Reasoning
I suspect hidden motives in others. Reverse Vigilance
I am not interested in abstract ideas. Reasoning
I am easily discouraged. Emotional Stability
I am not afraid of providing criticism. Reverse Dominance
I disclose my intimate thoughts. Privateness
I don’t like action movies. Liveliness
I want everything to be “just right.” Reverse Perfectionism
I feel threatened easily. Reverse Apprehension
I am the last to laugh at a joke. Liveliness
I enjoy discussing movies and books with others. Privateness
I joke around a lot. Reverse Social Boldness
I have a poor vocabulary. Reverse Apprehension
I dislike loud music. Liveliness
I make insightful remarks. Reasoning
I enjoy bringing people together. Reverse Warmth
I get chores done right away. Reverse Perfectionism
I reflect on things before acting. Reasoning
I am not bothered by disorder. Rule-Consciousness
I don’t like to get involved in other people’s problems. Social Boldness
I break rules. Rule-Consciousness
I can take strong measures. Reverse Dominance
I love large parties. Reverse Liveliness
I do not like poetry. Reasoning
I believe that others have good intentions. Vigilance
I leave a mess in my room. Perfectionism
I put off unpleasant tasks.
I oppose authority. Rule-Consciousness
I resist authority. Rule-Consciousness
I readily overcome setbacks. Reverse Self-Reliance
I get confused easily. Openness to Change
I know how to comfort others. Reverse Sensitivity
I am open about myself to others. Privateness
I rarely notice my emotional reactions. Sensitivity
I amuse my friends. Reverse Warmth or Reverse Liveliness
I love to think up new ways of doing things. Reverse Openness to Change
I dislike works of fiction. Reverse Abstractedness
I do not enjoy watching dance performances. Liveliness
I start conversations. Reverse Social Boldness
I make friends easily. Reverse Social Boldness
I often feel blue. Reverse Apprehension
I counter others’ arguments. Reverse Dominance
I am not interested in theoretical discussions. Reverse Abstractedness
I seek quiet. Social boldness
I have frequent mood swings. Emotional Stability
I learn quickly. Reasoning
I rarely look for a deeper meaning in things. Openness to Change
I like to read. Reverse Openness to Change
I keep my thoughts to myself. Reverse Privateness
I try to avoid complex people.
I reveal little about myself. Reverse Privateness
I am not bothered by messy people. Apprehension
I consider myself an average person. Reverse Rule-Consciousness
I like order. Reverse Perfectionism
I avoid philosophical discussions. Reverse Reasoning
I am annoyed by others’ mistakes. Emotional Stability
I cry during movies. Reverse Sensitivity
I am not really interested in others. Social Boldness
I believe that people are essentially evil. Reverse Vigilance
I know how to get around the rules. Rule-Consciousness
I seldom joke around. Warmth
I carry the conversation to a higher level.
I spend time thinking about past mistakes. Reverse Apprehension
I talk to a lot of different people at parties. Reverse Social Boldness
I bottle up my feelings. Reverse Emotional Stability or Warmth
I want to be left alone. Social Boldness
I take an interest in other people’s lives. Reverse Openness to Change
I am wary of others. Social Boldness
I enjoy teamwork. Reverse Social Boldness
I have little to say. Warmth
I believe laws should be strictly enforced. Reverse Rule-Consciousness
I do things by the book. Openness to Change
I am open about my feelings. Privateness
I believe that people seldom tell you the whole truth. Reverse Vigilance
I take deviant positions. Rule Consciousness
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